Mahua for Livelihoods

Back in 2013, when I was still a dreamy eyed development worker in Mandla, I had a crazy brainwave for transforming rural livelihoods in the tribal districts that I was working in. I got into trouble for that because in the Indian aid sector, one is supposed to be Gandhian and not Bacchanalian.

We had some Italians visit our field area for work. The gentlemen, having clandestinely tasted the alcoholic Mahua beverage, declared that the Mahua drink was “better than their Italian wine”. This got me thinking. The Indian Mahua drink had an untapped domestic and international market. As any straight-thinking development worker should, I asked the stakeholders themselves what they thought of my idea. I wished to know if they thought that it would be appropriate to collectively brew, package and sell Mahua based alcoholic drinks to which many women had responded, ‘अछा हो जायेगा मैडम’ (It will be good, Madam). A lady, without mincing words, stated, “शराब बनानेके लिए ही तोह महुआ बिन कर लाते हैं” (It is for the manufacture of alcohol that mahua is collected).

I quit Mandla a long time ago and have since discussed this idea with quite a few city dwellers. Nearly, everybody responded enthusiastically and asked why this had not been done before.

So, what is the Mahua all about?

The Mahua (Madhuca indica) tree is a deciduous tree, often found in Teak forests, that grows across India under dry tropical and sub-tropical climatic conditions. It provides important Non Wood Forest Products (NWFP) such as green manure, oil, oil cake, liquor (from flowers) and raw materials for several products. The tree can grow on a large range of soils right from the sandy loams to stiff clay and calcareous soils. As the tree is affected by neither heavy rains nor drought, it has great potential for agroforestry.

The Mahua trees bloom during the summers and the Mahua drink is prepared from the collected flowers. Women leave home as early as 4 a.m. in the morning to collect Mahua flowers from the forest. The flowers are never plucked. The flowers that have fallen of the trees are collected.

Sometimes entire families shift base from their village to the nearby forest in the summers to collect as much Mahua as possible. Mahua flower collection is highly competitive as everyone wants to collect a lot of flowers. Competition is not restricted to the human race. I had once heard of a woman who reported that she had mistakenly thought that there was a human collecting Mahua on the other side of the tree only to find that it was a bear feasting on the sweet Mahua flowers!

Tribal communities of Central India produce and consume their own alcohol made from the flowers of the Mahua tree. Men, women and on occasion, children enjoy the Mahua alcoholic drink that is called Mahuli or simply Mahua. Some researchers report that “women and children are also fond of these beverages but consume in small quantity and preferably during festivals or ceremonies”.

Various local alcoholic drinks meet upto 5-10% of the daily nutritional requirements, playing supplementary role in the nutrition of tribal people. The Mahua alcoholic beverage is also used to treat dysentery by Baiga, Gond, and Kol tribes. Under the PESA Act, 1996, a tribal can store upto 5 liters of alcohol. However they are not allowed to sell it as that is an offence under the Central Excise Act, 1944.

Drinking Mahua in Kanha #mahua #indianativespirit

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The Mahua drink is reportedly so delicious that Felix Padel, a visiting professor of anthropology at the Institute of Rural Management, Anand (IRMA) is of the opinion that ‘scotch and wine could face a tough competition in India if local varieties like mahua… are made available in their unadulterated form.’  This popularity and love for the Mahua among enthusiasts hints to the potential of business around the Mahua tree, that can help:

i. increase incomes of tribals;

ii. popularize Mahua drinks among and give legal access to the general public;

iii. set quality standards for Mahua beverage, and;

iv. combat deforestation.

Mahua and the Exploitation of tribals 

Alcohol production and consumption is the most important use of Mahua for tribal populations. However, tribals do not have storage equipment for these collected flowers which can lead to deterioration of the flowers’ quality. Tribals sell the flowers to traders for as low as INR 12 to 15 per kilo because they need the cash. The traders store these flowers. The tribals return from time to time to the same traders for buying the flowers that they had collected, when they need to brew alcohol. The tribal communities buy the flowers for as high as INR 20 to 30 per kilo. Sometimes the prices touch INR 40. Traders profit from the distress sale of mahua by tribals.

The dried intoxicating mahua 🙂

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This problem can be addressed by the creation of Producer Companies for the production and sale of the Mahua alcoholic drink. I suggest this under a Farmer Producer Company (FPC) because right now, the Indian government, under the auspices of the National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) and the Small Farmers Agri-business Consortium (SFAC), is trying to proliferate FPCs like mushrooms for anything and everything. The tribal communities could collectively produce, package and sell Mahua based alcoholic drinks. This will help popularize Mahua drinks among the public. As per the current laws, someone who is not a tribal cannot access the Mahua alcoholic beverage unless a tribal invites them to, since it is illegal for anyone to sell alcohol without a valid licence. If the beverage is produced, bottled and sold by a Producer Company, the product can be made available to the general public and it can possibly be exported.

Standards for the Mahua beverage

The Mahua beverage produced by the Producer Companies will have to adhere to strict standards of quality control without which the public will not warm up to Mahua. The commercialization of Mahua will lead to more research and development for this traditional alcoholic beverage of India. Studies are already on in the Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow and IIT, Delhi for process standardization in order to prepare good quality Mahua flower wine. This will also help curb adulteration malpractices such as mixing of sugar or urea with Mahua liquor that heavily compromises the quality of the final product. 

Combating deforestation

The Mahua tree is considered sacred by the tribal communities of Central India and is never hacked for wood. It is not uncommon to find a deforested hill with only Mahua trees scattered on it because the villagers cut away everything for firewood but not Mahua trees. Often, some or a large part of the land owned by tribal people consists of skeletal soils or lithosols as per FAO classification. This kind of soil is called barra zamin by the locals. Unaware that skeletal soils can be used for growing horticultural plants (they sometimes use it for cultivating kodo millet and red gram), they consider this land to be useless. They often refrain from reporting this land too. They simply claim that that it will be of no use in any government scheme as it is useless.

Planting Mahua trees on fallow lands owned by tribal people will help to bring that fallow land under cultivation which in turn can boost Mahua production. Mahua monocultures are not an answer to bring more land under forests but are an important option for agricultural land use. They will serve the purpose of carbon sequestration. Moreover, the Mahua leaves are economically important for rearing Tussar Silk caterpillars. This opens another important commercial activity from the same cultivated area. However, there is the threat of villagers clearing off existing Teak, Ghost trees, Flame of the forest trees, etc. in deciduous forests for planting Mahua. I have not dwelt much on this but this is definitely a possibility in case the Mahua starts raking in the moolah.

Mahua monocultures (in regions where they grow naturally) are a better alternative to growing non-edible crops for industrial purposes in rural wastelands. A big corporate, whom I will not name, had once come to Mandla for promotion of Jatropha. The tribals had been promised that the Jatropha would be bought back by the company for a good price. Many tribal families planted the Jatropha on their fallow lands. The seed stock/saplings were provided by the company itself. Here is the tragedy. No one came to buy the Jatropha. The plants occupied the fields for some years till one day another team came with a government scheme for mango plantations. The Jatropha plants were uprooted with the help of JCBs, paid for under the WADI programme and mangoes were planted in their place. I firmly think that no plant ought to be encouraged for plantation in lands of poor, tribal families unless it provides some edible product(s). Otherwise, if the plant does not generate the expected income, then the wasteland is wasted further. 

Official reactions

I had suggested this idea to the concerned district officials who had invited ideas for establishment of FPCs in Mandla. Although they were convinced by the commercial potential of the Mahua drink, they were also hilariously embarrassed. Not wanting to take the burden of promoting a perceived ‘social evil’, they hurriedly praised me for my ‘out-of-the-box’ idea but quickly stated that ‘it is not fit for the social sector’. The aid/development sector is referred to as the ‘social sector’ in India. A senior official later also explained to me how alcohol production and consumption was the most important use of Mahua for tribal populations and how traders profit from the distress sale of Mahua by tribals. At this point, I had casually and jovially asked him why he had disapproved my idea of a producer company for Mahua based alcoholic products to which he replied that he had liked it a lot but was not in a position to implement it. Their concerns are valid given that success stories such as Hiwre Bazar and Ralegan Siddhi started with alcohol prohibition.

Legal aspects and recent commercial developments surrounding alcohol sale and consumption in Madhya Pradesh and in the Republic of India

I choose to elaborate the legalities of this subject briefly because I had managed to rub a few people the wrong way by “suggesting something so anti-social”. The establishment of farmer producer companies for manufacture, packaging and sale of Mahua wine or any other local brew like rice beer, should not face any legal hindrances in India for the following reasons:

a) Prohibition is incorporated in the Constitution of India among the directive principles of state policy. Article 47 says: “The state shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and standard of living of its people as among its primary duties and in particular, the state shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the use except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.” It must be noted that alcohol is not outright banned according to this Article and in point c), the reader can note that the Ministry of Food Processing is definitely not hindered by this Article 47.

b) The sale, consumption and purchase of alcohol are banned in the states of Gujarat , Mizoram , Nagaland , Manipur and the Union territory of Lakshadweep. There is no evidence of alcohol being banned in any other Indian states apart from these. In fact, in 2007, the Mizoram Liquor Total Prohibition Act was amended to legalize the manufacture of wine from guavas and grapes, demonstrating the government’s willingness to popularize local brews.

c) The Ministry of Food Processing had issued an Expression of Interest in 2008 to set up the National Wine Board at Pune in the State of Maharashtra as a separate not-for-profit company under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956.

d) The word ‘alcohol’ is not mentioned at all in the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 .

e) Under the Fifth Schedule [Article 244(1)], Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes, Mandla district is a Scheduled Area in the State of Madhya Pradesh . In a Scheduled Area, a tribal household is allowed to store 5 liters of alcohol; however they are not permitted to sell it under any circumstances. Tribals already manufacture Mahua wine by their traditional methods. They can be directed towards making money out of their delicacy by selling it under the auspices of a producer company only.

f) The Madhya Pradesh government is acutely aware of the problem of tribals with regards to distress sale of Mahua flowers and their later repurchase by the same sellers at high prices. In order to protect the local community from exploitation by Mahua Traders, storage facility (godowns) of Mahua were planned and constructed under the Integrated Action Plan 2012 of Mandla. 10 Mahua godowns costing Rs. 100.00 Lacs were sanctioned to Forest Departments for constructions of godowns. 100 metric tons Mahua storage would be possible, 85 villages and 1200 Mahua collectors would be directly benefited. It is a matter of significance that the government has granted substantial sums for facilitating the storage of mahua given that ‘over 90% of harvested mahua flowers are used to produce country liquor’ .


With the liberalization and opening up of international wine market under the WTO regime, Govt. of India is trying to promote “Wines of India” and Agricultural and Processed Foods Export Development Authority has been entrusted to develop a strategy. The suggestion for large scale commercial production of tribal Mahua wine, under the auspices of a Farmer Producer Company, finds resonance with the policy of the Government of India with regards to wine. The implementation of this idea needs further elaboration without a doubt. Currently, FPCs are not known to do big business in India. FPCs for local brews like Mahua liquor, rice beer, guava wines, etc can change this scenario. If successful, the tribal belt will see great growth of income and our traditional brews will make it to the tables of the well-heeled. 

I welcome your comments, compliments and criticism.


Access to ICT4Ag in India

An advantage of having a peer coach is that you may never know what they might lead you to in your own sector. My WhyDev peer coach Eric Couper introduced me to the budding ICT4Ag industry in India when he was in Ethiopia! ICT4Ag means Information & Communication Technology for Agriculture. This introduction is for readers outside of the agriculture and rural development sector.  ICT4Ag in India largely comprises of mobile agricultural advisory services (mAgri) with Digital Green being an exception. Thanks to Eric, I listened to the webinar by Mr. Jawahar Kanjilal of Nokia India on how Nokia is making inroads into the agriculture sector with it Life Tools.

mAgri is the 21st century’s answer to 20th century TV shows like ‘Amchi Mati, Amchi Manasa’ (Our Soil, Our People). DD Sahyadri’s agriculture extention education show was undoubtedly one of the first ICT4Ag ventures witnessed by India and many Marathi families would without fail tune into the show 6:30 PM every evening before the arrival of cable television in India. The show continues till this date.

I decided to get the farmers we worked with to use these services and to know what they think about such services. Here is the story of the roadblocks I faced for the 2 services that I talked to farmers about.  On being explained the use of mobile advisory services for information on weather, crop inputs and market prices, farmers say that they will willingly buy these services. My mAgri popularization flight faced numerous logistical snags in the town of Mandla. It clearly isn’t easy to access mAgri services of several companies. My account here is that of someone operating from a tribal area of Madhya Pradesh, specifically the districts of Mandla and Dindori.

1)      Nokia Life Tools

I had seen this video of Nokia a long time ago but had completely forgotten about it and had never bothered to check out how they were going about it.

I explained Nokia Life Tools and its uses to some farmers in the Ghughri block, Mandla, Madhya Pradesh. People were keen on accessing such a service but here is the hurdles.

1. You have to buy a Nokia phone to be able to use Life Tools. Given that most people I had met already had phones, (Lava/ Micromax), there was no way they were going to buy a Nokia phone just for the sake of the Nokia Agriculture Life Tools service. Villagers say that they prefer the Lava and Micromax phones because they have long-lasting batteries which are necessary given erratic electricity supply in rural areas.

2. Nokia Life is not supported by BSNL cellular services. BSNL is the mobile network available in Ghughri, Mandla. Nokia will face this problem across India where BSNL is the only cellular service provider.

3. The non-availability of Nokia Life in the higher end Nokia phones is problem no.3. A wealthy farmer who has profitable business(es) apart from farming, or a rich sugarcane farmer who can afford a Nokia Lumia model cannot access Nokia Life despite being a Nokia phone owner.

2)      Reuters Market Light

Given that people have to buy a Nokia phone to access its ICT4Ag service, I searched for services that did not require the purchase of a cell phone of a specific brand. I found Reuters Market Light (RML).

RML provides agriculture related information on weather, market crop prices, insect and pest management details during the period for which the farmer has subscribed to RML. The customer has to buy RML direct cards just like mobile talktime recharge cards and activate the service on their existing cell phones.

I explained how RML works to some women’s self-help groups in Mandla block. They did show inclination to buy the RML service because they said that they would go to Jabalpur to sell their sugarcane stock if the prices were higher there as compared to Mandla. Moreover, the Mandla block does not have network connectivity problems as much as the Ghughri block does due to its mountainous and forest terrain. I checked the website of RML to know where one could buy RML cards. You can buy them only in Aadhaar stores.  The closest Aadhaar store was in Indore, 610 kms away from Mandla!  I decided to explore other ways of getting RML to our women farmers.  I found Mr. Manav Khosla of RML on Twitter.

I called up the RML toll free number. They put me in touch with their distributor for the Jabalpur division. This gentleman explained that customers will have to make the payment to the nearest branch of State Bank of India (SBI). The RML service will be activated on the basis of this payment. Nice!

Instead of sending the whole village to the SBI office in Mandla, I decided to visit SBI myself to understand the procedure. Turns out, that the SBI officials weren’t very sure themselves about proceeding with this and how to accept payments. Their lack of information ensured that I was turned into a shuttle-cock for a quarter of an hour as they sent me from one manager to another. After being tossed from here to there about 5 times, I finally got to the right person. Here is what he had to say.

“The RML people had visited us some months ago to make a presentation about RML. We do accept payments for RML but only if the customer has a SBI bank account.”

My question, “So if a person does not have a SBI bank account and wants to subscribe RML service, they’ll have to open a SBI bank account first?”

SBI Bank officer said, “Yes, madam.”

The problem over here is that the more popular bank in Mandla is the Central Bank of India (CBI), not the State Bank of India. Most villagers have accounts with CBI . RML should have kept the option of subscription via CBI open. People aren’t going to open bank accounts in SBI to access RML.

Moral of the story: SBI gets to decide whether RML can have more customers or not in areas that have no Aadhaar stores.  Methinks this marketing and sales strategy needs to be updated.

Given the logistical difficulties for getting the people we worked with to use ICT4Ag services, I decided to leave ICT4Ag alone and focus on the work I already had on hand.

Now for the famous LEARNINGS:

1. Purchasing ICT4Ag services in India is not yet as easy as subscribing to a mobile connection & buying mobile recharge.

2. Certain ICT4Ag services are dependent on specific cellular network providers.

3. Farmers across India aren’t yet aware of the existence of ICT4Ag services and this calls for better advertising and marketing.

4.  Indian farmers are keen to pay for ICT4Ag services for accessing market prices, weather information and insect & pest management information.

The Indian ICT4Ag sector is still setting itself up. Access to these services will simplify in the next decades. While there are studies on the content delivered by ICT4Ag services in India, a lot more feedback is needed from the customers for their perspectives on the ease of purchasing these services.

P.S.: Thank you WhyDev & Eric!

Edited on May 1, 2014 to include a better code for the Nokia presentation from Slideshare thanks to Nalini Kumar Muppala.

My Tryst with Organic Farming…on the farm.

The Ministry of Rural Development has taken it upon itself to promote organic farming across the length and breadth of India. Well that’s precisely what’ve decided to do in the National Action Plan for Climate Change and in the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture. Many NGOs have dutifully followed suit. This is especially true in some of the most backward districts of India. The self being a champion of organic farming (self-proclaimed of course and because I fancied myself a Planeteer as a kid) and an ICAR loyalist, decided to do organic farming in accordance to what may be prescribed by Indian Agriculture Universities only. To take after tosh recommended by these non-agriculture graduates working for sustainable agriculture in the rural development sector is sacrilege for me. Those iodine deficient creatures claim that “agronomists talk nonsense!” and hence have no credibility themselves!

When I was working in Mandla, I was keen upon the introduction of organic sugarcane production as many farmers near the town of Mandla have access to irrigation. The town is practically surrounded on 3 sides by the Narmada. I went about this in a thorough fashion and chose to do what is recommended by the Tamil Nadu Agriculture University for organic sugarcane production. Below is a description of how reality smacked me straight in the face.

Package of Practices for Organic Sugarcane Production by the Tamil Nadu Agriculture University (TNAU)


Recommend varieties for organic sugarcane production in Tamil Nadu are Co 8021, Co 86032, Co 86249, CoC 90063, CoG 93076, CoG 94077 and CoSi 95071.

The recommended varieties for Madhya Pradesh are as follows:

Serial No. Variety Maturity group Cane Yield (t/ha) Resistance to diseases and pests
1. Co 8371 (Bhima) Midlate 1117.7 Resistant to smut
2. Co 85004 (Prabha) Early 90.5 Resistant to smut
3. Co 86032 (Nayana) Midlate 102.0 Resistant to smut, field resistance to red rot
4. Co 87025 (Kalyani) Midlate 98.2 Resistant to smut, susceptible to red rot
5. Co 87044 (Uttara) Midlate 101.0 Moderately resistant to smut
6. Co 91010 (Dhanush) Midlate 116.0 Resistant to smut
7. Co 94008 (Shyama) Early 119.8 Resistant to red rot and smut
8. Co 99004 (Damodar) Midlate 115.5 Moderately resistant to red rot
9. Co 2001-12 Midlate 108.6 Resistant to red rot and moderately  resistant to smut
Source: Sugarcane varieties for cultivation, Agropedia and List of sugarcane varieties recommended for commercial cultivation in different states (Both websites were accessed on 3rd December, 2013)

Adoption difficulty: High

Problem: Where are all these varieties available? An agronomist colleague asked me to get in touch with the local Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Agriculture Science Centre) as they keep planting materials. Turned out that the district had not been included in the plan for sugarcane development and hence no planting material was available. All the varieties in the list above begin with Co. Co stands for Coimbatore. This implies that farmers will have to purchase the planting material from Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore 641 007. (They have a James Bond connection.)

Most farmers flatly refused to take the pains of ordering the varieties themselves because:

qndlq to coibqtore

Even though they might not actually have to undertake a tour through 4 states, they simply weren’t willing to take the pains of ordering something from Chennai Expressland! We need to power up the marketing of better varieties. Improved varieties should not have to wait for several decades for a marriage between research and policy to become available to smallholder farmers. In fact, the thinking has to shift from agricultural extention to marketing. On second thoughts, extension education and agri-input marketing is the same thing!

Land preparation

The land must be deep ploughed once or twice with disc plough and then followed by shallow ploughing three or four times using cultivator.

Adoption difficulty: Moderate


  1. People have to be convinced to undertake the extra per hour cost for a total of 6 ploughings. They generally do not plough more than 2 to 3 times.
  2. This is contradictory to the principles of conservation agriculture (CA) as prescribed by the FAO. CA prescribes zero-tillage i.e. no disturbance whereas TNAU wants farmers to cause the highest level of turmoil possible.

In my opinion, TNAU wants to destroy insect pests in the soil by exposing them to heat.


Row spacing: 90 cm. Furrows should be 20-30 cm deep. This spacing changes with planting season. 90 cms in November- December. 75 cms for planting in January and 60 cms for planting in March.

Adoption difficulty: Moderate.

Problem: People practically plant sugarcane setts at a distance of 10 to 15 cms. Ask them to plant the setts at a distance of 90 cms i.e. 3 feet and their eyes pop out. However, this can be dealt with. Many farmers who would scatter paddy seeds earlier have adopted the 25cms x 25cms spacing of the System of Rice Intensification. Sugarcane farmers will adopt too.

Organic manure

In order supply a total of 280 kgs of Nitrogen per hectare, the TNAU recommends the application of farmyard manure or compost or well-decomposed press mud at 80 t/ha either before last ploughing or in the furrows before planting. However, the quantity of N can come through one or more sources like farmyard manure, compost, press mud etc., depending upon their N content.

Difficulty level: As high as the Burg Khalifa.


Reaction of an agronomist colleague


Reaction of farmers:


People laughed at me when I discussed this with them on their farms. I remembered the words of Dr. Norman Borlaug himself.

At the present time, approximately 80 million tons of nitrogen nutrients are utilized each year. If you tried to produce this nitrogen organically, you would require an additional 5 or 6 billion head of cattle to supply the manure. How much wild land would you have to sacrifice just to produce the forage for these cows? There’s a lot of nonsense going on here.

From his interview on his 95th birthday.

Honestly, adding even in 1/4 th this amount is a very big deal. I checked out the recommendations of the TNAU in it’s package of practices for integrated nutrient and pest management in sugarcane, i.e. conventional sugarcane cultivation. They’ve recommended a basal dose of farmyard manure at 12.5 t/ha or compost 25 t/ha or filter press mud at 37.5 t/ha before the last ploughing under gardenland conditions. Still not possible! People laughed at me, again.

Don’t know what had gotten into me but I refused to face the truth. I was still not willing to give up. I was completely sold on the idea that organic farming is efficient. If not 80 tonnes of well-decomposed cowdung (farmyard manure for Mandla farmers means rotten cowdung), then I decided that they could use alternatives like:

a) Mahua oilcake: 2.5 kgs of N from 1 quintal @ INR 700 per quintal during monsoon and INR 1400 per quintal after monsoon.

b) Linseed oilcake: 4.9 kgs of N from 1 quintal @ INR 1800 per quintal

c) Niger oilcake: 4.7 kgs of N from 1 quintal @ INR 1700 per quintal

d) Poultry manure:  30 kgs of N, 20.7 kg of P and 10.4 kg of K from 1 tonne. Sold @ INR 650 per trolley (about a tonne) near Mandla. I do not know the prices elsewhere.

All values for NPK have been calculated in accordance with the average nutrient content values of bulky and concentrated organic manures on the Organic Farming portal of TNAU.

Taking all the financial and physical constraints into consideration, I started abandoning my hardline stance. Farmers should consider various permutations and combinations of these options according to their budget. This is certainly expensive business for lower middle class folks (sugarcane farmers in Mandla aren’t exactly poor, they’ll be middle class in 10 years surely). Organic farming is fine but not in such a fanatical manner that it ultimately appears comical. To be fair to the TNAU, they have stated what they calculated is needed in 1ha, so as to supply 280 kgs of N from organic sources only. Tough job that! I do hope to have the opinions of scientists of the TNAU or from other parts of the country about this.

Planting material

Setts must be from 6-8months old disease free nursery crop. Two budded setts should be preferred over three-budded setts. The seed material better be from organically grown sugarcane crop.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Problems: Not manyof the present set of varieties being used in Mandla are resistant to red rot and smut. People continue to use the stock that they have for many years now. The setts will definitely not be from organically grown crop.

Sett rate and planting

75,000 two-budded setts are required for planting one hectare with a distance of 90 cms between rows.

Adoption difficulty: None

Problems: None except for helping farmers overcome the shock of keeping a 3 ft distance between rows.

Green manure intercrop

Green manure crops like daincha or sunhemp need to be sowed on one side of the ridges on 3rd or 4th day after planting sugarcane and raise it as an intercrop with sugarcane. Harvest and insitu incorporate the intercrop around 45 days after transplanting.

Difficulty Level: Low

Problem: Almost none. Some green manure crop seeds will always be easily found.

Weed management

Hand hoeing and weeding at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. Only non-chemical weed management technologies like hand weeding and mechanical weed control methods are to be employed.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Problem: The current practice of sowing the sugarcane crop very close practically leaves no space for a human to enter to the sugarcane field and hence weeding is not carried out. This does not mean there is no weed growth. However, by introducing a gap of 3 feet between rows, it will now be possible to carry out weeding. This increase makes sugarcane cultivation more labour intensive and this burden generally breaks the back of women farmers and hired women labourers.


Apply 5 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria respectively on 30 and 60 days after planting of sugarcane. Mix the biofertilizers thoroughly with 500 kg/ha of farmyard manure to increase the bulkiness before application. This should be followed up with light earthing up and irrigation.

Difficulty level: High


My reaction:


Mid season, when farmers have more or less exhausted their stock of decomposed cowdung, obtaining 500 kgs will be as difficult. Application of fresh cowdung is not an option. Farmers will also find it difficult to buy so much azospirillum and phosphobacteria because they cost INR 25/kg and INR 70/kg respectively. Not much for a middle class pocket but that’s a lot of money for smallholder farmers. However, they can try and apply as much as they can afford.


Remove dried and senescent (old in simple language) leaves in the 5th and 7th month and apply as mulch in alternate furrows.

Difficulty level: None

Benefits: This is an activity that is not a part of current set of practices and can be adopted. Will require more labour.

Irrigation schedule
Germination (up to 35 days)

Every 7 days

Tillering  ( 36- 100 days)

Every 10 days

Grand growth (101-270 days)

Every 7 days

Maturity (271 days to harvest)

Every 15 days

This schedule is for medium type of soils. The interval is to be reduced for light soils and increased for heavy soils. When there is rain adjust the interval depending on the account of rainfall. Ridges and furrows method is inexpensive and best. Convey the irrigation water from source to the field head through pipelines to reduce conveyance loss.

Difficulty level: None

Prevention of lodging

At 7th month after trashing, a wet earthing up will help to reduce lodging of canes. Tying the canes with trash-twists (trash twist propping) will also help to reduce lodging.

Difficulty level: Very low

Insect control

Early shoot borer

Trash mulching, frequent irrigations and light earthing up at 35th days will result in lower incidence. Release 125 fertilized female Sturmiopsis parasite/ ha when the crops is at the age of 45 to 60 days.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Problem: Where do we obtain Mrs. Sturmiopsis? (pregnant & therefore married.)

Inter node stem borer

Cards pasted with 0.2 cc eggs of Trichogramma chilonis parasite are to be obtained from parasite breeding laboratories. They are to be placed in the field @ 25 cards/ha in 25 places once in 15 days when the crop is 4-11 months of old.

Alternatively, pheromone traps are to be introduced in the field @ 25/ha spaced at 20 meters apart when the crop is 5 months old, trap and kill the male moths of internode borer. Replace the pheromone vials in the traps in 7th and 9th months.

Difficulty level: High

Problem: Trichogramma & Sons are just as hard to find as Mrs. Sturmiopsis. I enquired about the points of sale for Trichogramma and many people led me to Trichoderma! Not the same thing! Not even close! And a trichologist will be of no help in this case whatsoever. An acquaintance (an agronomist) told me Syngenta sells these and he sent me information of their Bioline line that is only available in the UK. Facepalm!

Pheromone Traps are available with only one dealer of the Pest Control of India in Jabalpur (for supply to Mandla and surrounding areas) and these have to be pre-ordered. This can be managed and farmers can be ‘trained’ for the same through the infamous capacity building sessions.

Red rot disease

In places prone to red rot disease only resistant varieties such as Nayana, Kalyani, Shyama, Damodar and Co 2001 – 2012 are be planted.

In case susceptible varieties are grown, adopt the following practices.
1. Select and use disease free setts
2. Eliminate and burn affected clumps
3. Stop flow of irrigation/rain water from diseased fields to healthy fields
4. Do not raise ratoon crop from the disease affected crop and
5. After the harvest of affected crop, grow rice crop and destroy the soil debris inoculums.

Difficulty: Medium

Problem: Resistant varieties are not available for reasons explained earlier. Other precautions can be introduced in the area.

Smut disease

1. Obtain setts from disease free canes
2. Remove and burn affected clumps.
3. Do not allow more than one ratoon crop and
4. Grow resistant varieties.

Difficulty level:  Medium

Problem: Same as for red rot.

Grassy shoot disease

Treating the setts in an aerated steam therapy (AST) unit at 50°C for one hour can destroy the disease causing organism in the setts. Use the setts from 3-tier nursery raised using AST treated setts to avoid the disease.

Difficulty: High

Problem: What is an aerated steam therapy unit? How does a farmer access one? What are the alternatives for smallholder farmers on field?

Cane harvest

The canes are to be harvested when they are fully mature. The sucrose content of the juice of the crop will be more than 16 % and the purity of the juice around or more than 85%. In general is advisable to harvest at the age of around 1 year. The canes are to be harvested 2 to 3 cm below the ground level using a hand axe. Topping should be done at the point of break.

Difficulty level: Low.

Cane yield

When all the package of practices are carried out appropriately in time, the cane yield will be around 150 t/ha. In well-drained fertile deep soils, the cane yield can go up to 250 t/ha.

Problem: Given that it is next to impossible to follow all the package of practices, the cane yield will not be close to that that has been stated above. I chose not to torment my soul with what may be the output of any farmer’s heroic efforts at implementing this package of practice.

Green Cane Trash Blanket

Short description: Elimination of burning as a pre-harvest treatment of sugar cane, and managing the resultant trash as a protective blanket to give multiple on and off-site benefits. This is a sustainable land management practice from Australia that I wanted to introduce in our area since farmers burn their fields after harvest to kill weeds and insects. I wasn’t successful due to the setbacks I faced in the previously described intercultural operations. The green cane trash blanket is not a part of the package of practices of the TNAU and is something that I wanted to integrate. Colleagues gave me an almost paternal look that said, “Let the child try weaning farmers off their burning habit as much as she wants. She’ll come around.” Well I did come around and how! The simplest solutions are not simple to implement.

More here: WOCAT – Green Cane Trash Blanket

Ratoon cane yield

If the ratoon crop is managed well with all the appropriate package of practice, the cane yield from the ratoon crop will be almost equal or marginally lower (around 5%) compared to that of the previous plant/ ratoon crop.

Problem: We weren’t getting started on the first yield properly and hence decided not to wreck our brains on the ratoon yield.


Organic farming is difficult because

1. Adding the requisite amount of NPK is very difficult due to a lack of organic materials in necessary amounts and exactly when they are needed;

2. The non-availability of inputs for biological pest control in many locations as compared to the ease of access to chemical inputs and

3. The high cost of organic inputs.

I know that organic farming enthusiasts will be offended by some or the other part above. I won’t even touch upon the part concerning the alleged higher nutritive values of organic food. I doubt that myself. It is pesticide-free but more nutritious? Haven’t got a clue. I continue to harbour the hope that there should be some way to practically implement organic farming on the farm, outside control conditions. I continue to hope that WorldWatch is right and Dr. Borlaug was not. What is to be done? Many are sitting on the fence. I’ve jumped from the ‘enthusiast’ camp to the ‘on-the-fence’ camp. Paul Neate on CGIAR Climate is right that organic farming needs more debate. If it is organic, it needn’t necessarily be right.


I sincerely thank the TNAU for the excellent website that they have set up. They have presented the principles and techniques of conventional and organic farming is the most simple manner possible.  This post and everything that I learned, unlearned and relearned about organic farming and sugarcane cultivation would not have been possible without the treasure trove of information that is available on the website of the Tamil Nadu Agriculture University. The learning was very intense indeed and many of the things that I read there made me revise entire chapters in the Handbook of Agriculture. Now every time I think about organic cultivation, I never take a step forward without referring to the TNAU. I strongly encourage anyone interested in sustainable agriculture and organic farming to do the same.

Dear readers, we can now have a verbal slug-fest in the comments section.

How caste interfered with Organic Farming

The Indian government, more precisely the NMSA, is very gung-ho at the moment to ensure that every farmer (well everyone who is willing to listen and experiment at least) takes to organic farming methods. Right now, most smallholder farmers are organic by default (lack of money and/or access to resources). The grand plan is to make them organic by design.  We, the loyal foot soldiers, are leaving no stone un-turned to get all the prescribed techniques across to our target beneficiaries or as the WhyDev guys will like it, people we work with. We are out to enhance food production and every Collector worth his/her salt is after agriculture departments and NGOs working in agricultural development to ensure that line sowing is done in as many fields as possible. Furthermore, the most repelling (not always) and complicated concoctions have been formulated to enhance soil fertility and slay pesky bugs. The way one is supposed to go about preparing them might convince on-lookers that we are out to give the grand old Getafix a run for his money. See Nimastra, Ghanajeevamrutam and Beejamrutam via DigitalGreen. Nonetheless, we are determined to ensure that our agricultural GHG emissions do not help accelerate the drowning of Venice, Tuvalu, Bangladesh and of course save our own bums. Hence our target is that every smallholder farmer in the country is taught the tricks and that he/she starts implementing it in their fields. After all, our land area is not to increase but the productivity can.

Potions for work: Chilli Garlic potion as an insecticide

Potions for work: Chilli Garlic potion as an insecticide

Me being a lover of organic agriculture since the age of 10 (thanks to a certain Mr. Captain Planet and his Planeteers) took to all the prescribed ideas with mucho gusto, thank you very much and decided to go about it in an even more thorough fashion in order to educate farmers about various options for organic manures. I revised my beloved Bible, the Handbook of Agriculture and came to the conclusion that apart from the various seemingly magical potions that we expect our farmers to cook up, there are many other locally available thingamajigs that they ought to be adding to their land but are unfortunately (more like due to the lethargy of agriculture departments?) not aware of the uses. So what are these seemingly in our face but notoriously mysterious crop yield enhancing goodies? Well there are many. I zeroed down on several of them but I chose to concern myself with two soil fertility enhancers keeping in mind my work area – Mahua oil cakes and bone meal. More about mahua and its multiple uses in another post. Farmers, especially elderly farmers (men and women) often express their displeasure with urea (they call it ‘ooria’) and SSP. They report that urea kills the land or that urea brings down the land (quality). The complaint is that if they happen to add 7 bags of urea this year, they are bound to obtain increased yields. However, the following year they need to add almost 14 bags of urea to obtain the same level of yield. Hence, many have stopped using urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and single super phosphate (SSP) altogether.

To resolve their problem in a sustainable fashion, this recently graduated enthusiast stuck to a textbook prescribed method. I made it a point to inform every group of farmers I interacted with about the uses of concentrated organic manures like bone meal, hoof meal and horn meal. These are abundantly available, especially near the periphery of the forest (as per the villagers themselves), are very cheap and being slow release fertilizers, provide benefits to the soil for up to 3 years (residual effects included). Bone meal is rich in calcium and phosphorus and has low but decent amounts of nitrogen and potassium.  After having given this lecture about half a dozen times, I became accustomed to the reactions it evoked and learned to be cautious as the last manner in which I would want to die is being lynched. Talk about security concerns in the field. Here is why. Everywhere, people looked offended by the very mention of bone meal and point blank refused to use it. They throw a look that kind of suggests that they were looking at a blasted, little louse that is out to contaminate them with leprosy and in turn make them social outcasts. I risked my neck a little more and probed into the root of the problem. It turned out that our beneficiaries do not care two hoots for Article 17 of the India Constitution that abolishes untouchability and are very positively ‘My Foot!’ about the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955. This is the scence. A certain caste whose name I shall not mention since it is possible that my respected readers might happen to know someone by that surname and then tag them as untouchables in their heads (I am such a Miss. Goody-Two-Shoes!). I shall instead call them  the dead body cleaners (DBCs). They are responsible for cleaning up the carcasses of cattle. People simply throw away their dead animals in open fields and the DBCs then come to take away the hide. The animal is allowed to rot and then the DBCs descend upon the plot again to collect the bones. Problem is that DBCs are considered untouchables. The DBCs make their living by selling animal hide and animal bones. Traders send trucks to villages where DBCs have their collected stock. Entire trucks filled to the brim with animal bones leave our area. The bones are later taken to factories where they are crushed and sent for further processing. Now I was of the opinion that people could simple buy these bones by the quintal, crush them themselves and use it in their farms. You see this is optimal utilization of local resources without relying on fertilizers of an industrial origin. Besides providing good amounts of phosphorus, the bone meal will also provide micronutrients (I don’t know which) that Indian soils are notoriously deficient in. I tried to feed all the scientific facts I had mugged up about bone, horn and hoof meal to our farmers and also the economic logic of obtaining it withing the village. But alas! All in vain! They staunchly told  me that if they start handling bones, they will be ostracized and get declared ‘untouchables’ themselves. Tribals, merchant castes, oil extracting castes, fisher folks, Brahmins all in the same boat! Make no bones about that. They are fine with handling bulls***, i.e. cowdung but no bones. Thank you very much. I tried to reason with them that by this logic all doctors (human and vets) can be termed untouchables. No use.

Our soil science professor had very clearly and concisely taught us how to use various concentrated organic manures . What the man forgot was that all that is permissible in science is not permissible in society.  Just because one has their heart and head in the right places does not imply that everyone else does. I learned a lesson again. There is little use picking up a bone with that sacred cow called the Great Indian Caste System.

Hurdles for climate change mitigation in Indian agriculture. Do we know them?

India is a major contributor to climate change and at the same time is highly vulnerable to climate change. To put the latter in the words of Shri Jairam Ramesh, Minister, Rural Development, “there is no country more vulnerable to climate change than India, on so many fronts.” (Ramesh, 2011)  More precisely, India’s long coastline, high dependence of agriculture on the monsoons, the Himalayan glaciers and highly natural resource dependent livelihoods of rural people make us very susceptible to the projected consequences of climate change. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was set up in 2008 by the Government of India to meet the expected challenges of climate change. The NAPCC has a total of 8 missions to address this subject in various sectors of the economy. With regards to agriculture, the NAPCC has clearly stated that India needs to devise strategies that will make Indian agriculture more resilient to climate change and especially to increase the productivity of rain fed agriculture. The National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) was created under the NAPCC to address the threats to agricultural sustainability due to climate change by focusing on dry land farming, strategic planning at agro-climatic zone level, customizing interventions to enhance productivity, simplifying access to information and institutional support and creating more lab to land linkages. The NMSA has 17 goals and has decided the deliverables to be achieved by 2017 i.e. by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan. More information on the deliverables can be found here. The NAPCC is keen upon the protection of the poor and vulnerable sections of the society through an inclusive and sustainable development strategy which is sensitive to climate change and to deploy appropriate technologies for both adaptation and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions extensively and at an accelerated pace. The task is ambitious and we might well say Herculean. The government has already taken numerous steps towards the implementation of the NMSA at the state and national level in the form of many programmes that are currently underway examples of which are the MKSPRKVYNFSM and many others. In order to address the challenges stepping out of the effects of climate change on sustainable agriculture, the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture has defined 10 mission interventions for sustainable agriculture in India. The planned interventions are:

  1. Improved crop seeds, livestock and fish cultures.
6. Agricultural insurance
  1. Water use efficiency
7. Credit Support
  1. Pest management
8. Markets
  1. Improved farm practices
9. Access to information
  1. Nutrient management
10. Livelihood diversification

Convergence with the other national missions is also a key feature of the task undertaken by the NMSA. Convergence has been planned with the National Mission for a “Green India” for the promotion of agroforestry, the National Water Mission for achieving better water pricing and water efficiency, the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency and the National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change for knowledge management. The NMSA has also clearly stated that the need of the hour is to synergize modern agricultural research with the indigenous wisdom of the farmers to enhance the resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change. The Mission would also promote preservation of Indian Agricultural Heritage to integrate in-situ conservation of genetic resources based on traditional knowledge for Natural Resources Management. There are and there will be roadblocks – known and unknown – for achieving the climate change mitigation goals laid out in the NMSA. The challenge will be to identify the unknown hurdles, document them and then attack the same. There is a pretty simple way to identify potential problems – ask farmers themselves. A field assessment can be carried out to

a)      Identify hindrances towards implementation of the mission interventions;

b)      Collect data from farmers to understand hitherto unknown agricultural innovations and adaptation strategies devised by them;

c)      Contribute to the documented knowledge of traditional and contemporary Indian agriculture so as to meet the objectives of convergence and;

d)     Obtain gender-differentiated data on climate change adaptation and mitigation.

The need for such an assessment stems from the fact that there is almost no study that has been carried out in India to understand the smallholder farmers’ perspectives of perceived changes in weather and climate. We need to understand how they innovate to adapt to changes and how they maximize or waste local resources in a bid to change their agricultural practices and maintain their levels of production if not to increase them. Nearly 700 m Indians are agriculturalists or to describe it better, are dependent on natural resource based livelihoods. 60 to 80% of our farmers are women. Very little is known about how rural farmers view climate change and global warming or whether they are even aware of what is taking place. Most studies concerning agriculture and climate change that are found online are scientific papers concerning field studies related to effects of climate change on specific crops or in specific regions. Besides, a lot of these papers are very expensive for the public to access.  Just feed ‘India climate change agriculture’ on Google Scholar and you shall know. While little is known of what rural farmers know and understand, it is important to mention that it is definitely known what urban India thinks about climate change. The paper ‘Climate Change in the Indian Mind‘ by Anthony Leisorowitz and Jagadish Thaker and the one that follows up on it, ‘Global Warming’s Six Indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis‘ are precisely the places to start. The respondents were 75% urban and 25% rural.

Keeping in mind the main target group and the objectives of the NAPCC and the NMSA, an assessment needs to be carried out of farmers in varying agro-climatic zones (ACZs) that have been identified as the most vulnerable to climate change. The study can be carried out by using focus group discussions to discover traditional and contemporary agricultural practices of farmers and a set of 10 gender and climate change research tools as prescribed in the FAO –CCFAS training guide – Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for Rural Development. The tools have been categorized as climate analogue tools, weather forecast tools and tools for understanding and catalyzing gender-sensitive climate-smart agriculture initiatives. The questionnaires in these tools can be modified to suit the exact needs of the study so as the assessment to extract precise information w.r.t. to the 17 goals of the NMSA. The results of this study can then help to pinpoint the progress that has already been achieved through past and present initiatives by public and private bodies towards climate change adaptation and mitigation, or more specifically the 17 goals of the NMSA, the roadblocks towards pending progress and how government initiatives can be more fine-tuned to ground realities.

Where the study should be conducted?

India has a total of 15 agro-climatic zones (Planning Commission Khanna , 1989). Under the National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) each agro-climatic zone was divided into sub–zones totalling 127 based on rainfall, existing cropping pattern and administrative units. The country has been delineated into 21 agro-ecological regions, using physiography, soils bioclimatic types and growing periods by the NBSS & LUP, Nagpur.  As the NMSA has identified Rajasthan, southern Gujarat, the Indo-Gangetic Plains, Madhya Pradesh, Northern Karnataka, Northern Andhra Pradesh and Southern Bihar as the most vulnerable areas to climate change or as the high-risk areas, it will be a good idea to carry out the study in these regions. The agro-climatic and agro-ecological zones that can covered by the assessment are:

Serial no. Region Agro-climatic zone Agro-ecological zone
1. Rajasthan 14. Western Dry Region 2. Western Plain and Kutch Peninsula
2. Southern Gujarat 13. Gujarat plains and hill region 2. Western Plain and Kutch Peninsula and 5. Central Highlands and Kathiawar peninsula
3. Indo-Gangetic Plains (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal) 3.Upper Gangetic Plain Region4. Middle Gangetic Plain Region5. Lower Gangetic Plain Region 4. Northern Plain and Central Highlands9.Northern Plains
4. Madhya Pradesh 7. Eastern Plateau and Hills Region8. Central Plateau and Hills Region9. Western Plateau and Hills Region 4. Northern Plain and Central Highlands5. Central Highlands and Kathiawar Peninsula10. Central Highlands11. Deccan Plateau and Central Highlands
5. Northern Karnataka Southern Plateau and Hills Region 6. Deccan Plateau
            6. Northern Andhra Pradesh 7. Deccan Plateau and Eastern ghats
            7. Southern Bihar 4.Middle Gangetic Plains 14. Eastern Plain

A total of 11 agro-climatic zones and 8 agro-ecological zones can be covered under this endeavor and surely more can be added.


1. Focus group discussion for traditional agricultural practices.

These focus group discussions can be carried out in a pre-decided number of villages of the selected districts to understand traditional and contemporary agricultural practices of the area. Participants will be asked to give details of cultivation of each crop (agronomic, horticultural and vegetable) that is cultivated by them. The precise information that is to be gathered regarding each crop that is cultivated is as follows:

  1. Seed selection (old and new varieties)
  2. Seed treatment
  3. Seed rate
  4. Sowing time
  5. Sowing methods and machinery used.
  6. Nursery bed preparation (only for paddy and vegetable cultivation)
  7. Land preparation (time of preparation, inputs used, machines used, labour, etc)
  8. Sowing / transplantation
  9. Fertilizer management
  10. Water management(irrigated / rainfed, source of water, machines used, labour, etc)
  11. Pest and disease management(time of action, inputs used, machines used, labour, etc)
  12. Weed control
  13. Harvesting, threshing and yield.
  14. Storage
  15. Grading and marketing

Responses to these questions will provide:

a)      Aggregated data on traditional cultivation and rearing practices.

b)      Find out indigenous adaptation measures or innovations if any.

c)      Understand the reach / lack of reach of governmental extension education services and private agricultural companies.

d)     Understand the varieties (old/new) that are favoured by agriculturalists and why. Would they like some of the old varietiesto be revived? Why? Do they favour newer variants? Why?

e)      Adoption of chemical inputs.

f)       Access to inputs.

g)      Major uses of cultivated crops (domestic use or sale).

h)      Discussions with farmers to introduce them to technologies (for e.g. SRI) and whether they can be implemented in their fields? What are the possible advantages? What are the hindrances? What are the difficulties that they faced earlier when they had been introduced to improved technologies? What kind of assistance is required for better adaptation? – What are the risks that they face?

i)        How much of the produce is used for domestic consumption? Do they have surplus? How long do their food stocks last?

2.       Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for rural development

Gender must be integrated into the discussions so as to find out perceptions regarding climate change, agriculture and socio-economic impacts from the points of men and women. The CGIAR and FAO have developed the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security-FAO Training guide – Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for rural development.  The methods prescribed in the guide can be effectively used to gather information on the climate change and adaptation measures. All the listed tools will be used in group discussions with farmers (men and women) in the selected villages and the responses obtained from these sessions can be aggregated for further research and for analyzing the possible roadblocks towards the achievements of the goals of the NMSA. Listed below are the 10 tools that are to be used and they have been categorized according to their uses. They haven’t been described in detail as the explanations are available in the guide itself.

Climate analogue tools

i)                    Village resources Map – Helps to learn about a community and its resource-base and provides useful information about local perceptions of resources by men and women.

ii)                  Seasonal calendar tool and iii) Daily activities clocks–The calendar is used to understand farmers’ perceptions of typical seasonal conditions as well as key dimensions of food security and livelihoods. The clock is used to illustrate all of the different types of activities carried out by an average individual in one day.

iv)                Farming systems diagram – Helps to clarify how rural household livelihoods are assembled and the flow of resources to and from the household and who is involved, by gender.

v)                  Capacity and vulnerability analysis matrix – It is used to understand the resource and needs of men and women.

Objectives of these sessions:

1)      Extent of farmer mobility – Are farmers mobile or not? Can exposure visits help? What and how do they wish to learn from visiting climate analogue sites.

2)      Better understand how the use of other information and communication technologies may be ways in which to effectively share knowledge about what people are doing now in places with similar future climates for these different groups.

3)      Test the usefulness of gender-differentiated participatory resource maps in helping to enhance understanding of the potential of using the climate analogues tool in potential action research.

4)      Better understand the factors helping and hindering male and female farmers in learning from others about adaptive strategies for dealing with climatic uncertainties.

Weather forecast tool

i)                    Seasonal food security calendar – Documentation of connections between seasonal climate conditions and food security over the course of the year.

Objectives of session:

1)      To better understand how we make weather information more useful and equitable to rural women and men including youths;

2)      To better understand which types of weather information is available to women, men and youths;

3)      To understand how and from where women, men and youths get information on weather.

4)      To better understand men’s, women’s and youth’s abilities to use this information, including the opportunities and constraints in accessing and using both daily and seasonal weather forecasts;

5)      To inform the design of action research to reach women, men and youths with weather and climate-related information that they can use it in making climate-smart agricultural decisions.

Tools for understanding and catalyzing gender-sensitive climate smart agricultural initiatives

i)                    Venn diagrams – Used to document the key local groups and institutions that are utilized by the target population or that are part of providing a specific service.

ii)                  Institutional profiles–Helps to learn about local organizations, including how they function, for what purpose and in clarification of decision-making roles.

iii)                Changing farming practices – Documentation of how a change in farming practices and changes in external inputs, impacts the activities of men and women.

Objectives of session:

1)      To explore how institutional arrangements can be strengthened to improve access to benefits of climate change-related interventions and,

2)      To understand gender difference in access to climate-smart agricultural interventions and opportunities.

Most of the objectives have been stated verbatim here from the CCFAS-FAO training guide itself. Details regarding the tools stated above and how to use them can be found in the training guide itself. It is available online at

Carrying out the study

The assessment can be carried out by NGOs on the field or research bodies. The NGOs can be selected for this work on the basis of their previous work in agriculture, environmental protection and rural development and thanks to the relationships that they have built with farmers in their work areas. Selected NGOS are to be trained in the use of the FAO – CCFAS training guide – Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for Rural Development. For the ease of functioning, partner NGOs may be those who are running women’s self-help groups in the selected areas. It is the mode of functioning of the National Rural Livelihoods Mission to carry out all development work through SHGs and hence it will be interesting to understand the workings on climate change and adaptation and mitigation activities from the perspectives of the SHGs and to compare them with people who are not associated to SHGs. As the NMSA recognizes the gender-differentiated impacts of climate, it will also help to carry out the survey with four groups in the village:

i)                    Women associated to a SHG.

ii)                  Husbands/ fathers of women associated to a SHG.

iii)                Women not affiliated to a SHG.

iv)                Husbands/ fathers of women not associated to a SHG.

Or else, the research body undertaking the survey collaborates with NGOs to carry out the study with the people the NGO is working with.


Outputs of the various tools shall vary in the kind of data and information that they will provide and shall serve different purposes. The major findings can then be put together from all of the above stated exercises and location specific concerns may then be discerned. Recommendations can later be made for research and development interventions that will have to be carried out by the NMSA and partner bodies for effective implementation of the 10 mission interventions. Listed below are the types of outputs that can be expected from each group of tools listed in the methodology and the goals or objectives of the NMSA that they will ultimately serve.

A. Outputs of the Focus Group Discussions for understanding agricultural practices

1. Creation of a traditional knowledge bank of existing and older agricultural practices straight from the field and from so many varying agro-climatic zones.

2. Understanding of the results and responses from the FGDs will help in the deployment of customised technologies and package of practices that are specific to regional requirements.

3. Identification of innovations, adaptation measures and good practices can help in their dissemination in other climatic zones and in further institutional research (Land to Lab transfer).

4. Assistance in customising training and capacity building efforts to suit regional needs.

5. Identification of problems with various systems – old and new.

6. Identify varieties that worked and those that did not. This will help customize hybrid or high-yielding varieties to the ACZ.

NMSA goals served by this activity

  1. The NMSA wants to preserve Indian Agricultural Heritage to integrate in-situ conservation of genetic resources based on traditional knowledge. The results of this activity will help in the documentation of traditional knowledge.
  2. Goal 4: Productivity enhancement in crop sector
  3. Goal 5: Improving seed varieties and efficiency of seed chain.
  4. Goal 7: Improved soil health management.
  5. Goal 8: Increasing level of farm mechanization.
  6. Goal 14: Research and Development.
  7. Goal 15: Capacity building of stakeholders

B. Outputs of the climate analogues tools

1. Development of Village Resource Maps that focus more on tracking farmers’ mobility and noting factors that help and/or hinder mobility and knowledge exchange regarding adaptation strategies.
2. Seasonal calendars will help to understand when mobility is possible.
3. Notes on responses, from the men’s focus group and from the woman’s focus group to a set of guiding questions aimed at the objectives of the use of this tool.
4. Better understanding of who may benefit from farmer to farmer exchanges based upon climate analogues, and why.
5. Recommendations regarding gender-sensitive strategies to incorporate in the design of action research based upon climate-analogue informed farmer to farmer exchanges and other possible approaches (e.g. use of films, cell phones) aimed at making linking climate analogue information with actions that help improve livelihoods of the poor in a sustainable manner.
6. Help in determining if using gender-disaggregated participatory village-level resource maps will help to inform all of the objectives supporting the use of this tool.NMSA goals served by this activity

  1. Goal 13: Easier access to information.
  2. Goal 15: Capacity building of stakeholders

C. Outputs of the weather forecast tool

1. An overview of the kind of weather information women, men and youths have access to, the source of this information and how they use it; and an understanding of the kind of weather information participants would like to receive and how they would like to receive it.

2. A seasonal calendar that demonstrates farming activities based on weather information.

NMSA goals served by this activity

  1. Goal 11: Developing safety net.
  2. Goal 13: Easier access to information.

D. Outputs of the Tools for understanding and catalyzing gender-sensitive climate smart agricultural initiatives

1. Information regarding the kinds of institutions, strategies and approaches that can support shifts to climate-smart agricultural practices by both men and women.

2. Better understanding of the kinds of climate-smart agricultural practices that have been taken up by men and women, how and why these changes have come about, including challenges and opportunities.

NMSA goals served by this activity

  1. Goals 1 to 10 and 13 to 16.


Data collection –  The data will be more qualitative that quantitative. Responses can be summarized and assembled into results for deriving conclusions regarding what is it that needs to be done and how can the findings positively impact the implementation of the interventions of the NMSA.

This ‘idea’ of the assessment definitely needs more refinement. There is a plethora of literature regarding what the scientific community understands about climate change, but what truly matters is whether this knowledge is reaching the people for whom it is meant and whether scientists and policymakers are in tune with the scenario at the grassroots level. Time to get there. What do you think? How can the NMSA be made a success?